Breast cancer

Breast Cancer 

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer that affects women worldwide (it can occur in both men and women, but it is more common in women). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), breast cancer accounts for 25% of all cancer cases in women globally. Early detection of breast cancer can significantly improve the chances of successful treatment and recovery. Therefore, it is crucial to have an effective breast cancer diagnostics regimen in place.

There are several diagnostic tests used to detect breast cancer. These tests include mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and biopsy. The most commonly used diagnostic test is mammography, which uses X-rays to produce images of the breast tissue. Mammography is recommended for women aged 40 and above, as this age group is at higher risk of developing breast cancer.

Ultrasound is another diagnostic test used to detect breast cancer. It uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the breast tissue. Ultrasound is often used in conjunction with mammography for a more accurate diagnosis.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce images of the breast tissue. MRI is recommended for women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer due to family history or genetic factors.

Biopsy and further treatment:

A biopsy is a procedure where a small amount of breast tissue is removed and examined under a microscope for signs of cancer. There are different types of biopsies, including fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, and surgical biopsy. The type of biopsy recommended depends on the size and location of the suspicious area in the breast.

It is important to note that not all breast lumps are cancerous, and not all breast cancers can be detected by mammography or ultrasound alone. Therefore, a biopsy is often needed to confirm the diagnosis of breast cancer.

In addition to diagnostic tests, there are several other factors that are taken into consideration when diagnosing breast cancer. These factors include the age of the patient, family history, previous medical history, and physical examination.

Once a diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed, the next step is to determine the stage of the cancer. This is done through imaging tests such as CT scans, bone scans, and PET scans. Staging helps determine the extent of the cancer and helps the healthcare team determine the most appropriate treatment plan.

In conclusion, breast cancer diagnostics regimen is crucial for the early detection and successful treatment of breast cancer. It is important for women to be aware of the risk factors for breast cancer and to undergo regular breast cancer screenings as recommended by their healthcare provider.


Treatment options for breast cancer depend on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the location of the tumor, and the overall health of the patient. In this article, we will discuss the different breast cancer treatment options available.

  1. Surgery: Surgery is often the first line of treatment for breast cancer. The type of surgery performed depends on the size and location of the tumor. There are two main types of surgeries: breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) and mastectomy. In breast-conserving surgery, only the tumor and a small amount of surrounding tissue are removed. In mastectomy, the entire breast is removed. Reconstruction surgery may be performed after a mastectomy to rebuild the breast.
  2. Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy is often used after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. It may also be used as the primary treatment for small tumors that have not spread. Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to target cancer cells. The treatment is usually given five days a week for several weeks.
  3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. It is often used after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells or to shrink tumors before surgery. Chemotherapy is also used to treat advanced breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. The treatment is given intravenously or orally.
  4. Hormone Therapy: Hormone therapy is used to treat breast cancers that are hormone receptor-positive. Hormone receptor-positive breast cancers have receptors for estrogen or progesterone, which can fuel their growth. Hormone therapy blocks the hormones or lowers their levels in the body, which can slow or stop the growth of the cancer cells. Hormone therapy may be given orally or by injection.
  5. Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapy is a newer type of cancer treatment that targets specific molecules that help cancer cells grow and spread. Targeted therapy is often used in combination with chemotherapy or hormone therapy. There are several targeted therapies approved for the treatment of breast cancer, including Herceptin, Perjeta, and Kadcyla.
  6. Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. Immunotherapy is not yet a standard treatment for breast cancer, but it is being studied in clinical trials.

In conclusion, breast cancer treatment options depend on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the location of the tumor, and the overall health of the patient. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy are the main treatment options for breast cancer. The choice of treatment depends on the individual patient's case and requires consultation with a healthcare professional. Early detection and prompt treatment of breast cancer can increase the chances of successful treatment and recovery.

BRCA 1-2

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that produce proteins responsible for suppressing tumor growth. When these genes are mutated, they increase the risk of developing breast, ovarian, and other types of cancer. The first step in identifying BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is to assess the patient's family history of cancer. Women who have a first-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer are at a higher risk of developing these cancers themselves. If a patient has a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, a genetic counselor can help determine whether genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is appropriate.

Surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, PARP inhibitors, and immunotherapy are the main treatment options for BRCA1 and BRCA2-related cancers.

PARP Inhibitors: PARP inhibitors are a type of targeted therapy that block an enzyme called PARP, which is involved in repairing damaged DNA. In BRCA1 and BRCA2-related cancers, PARP inhibitors can be effective because these cancers have a defect in their ability to repair DNA. PARP inhibitors are used to treat advanced ovarian and breast cancers that have already been treated with chemotherapy.

In Northern Europe, women who have been identified as carriers of the mutation often perform a mastectomy to reduce the risk, and also remove the ovaries and uterus. For example, in the Netherlands, half of the women informed of being a carrier undergo a mastectomy. Mastectomy performed “in advance” (i.e., based only on the detection of a mutation, without the detection of a malignant neoplasm in breast), reduces the risk of developing breast cancer in the future by 90%.
In Israel, most carriers are satisfied with routine follow-up (from an early age and every six months) with a mammologist and performing imaging tests. Protocol examinations of carriers usually include: Ultrasound and MRI (with an interval of 6 months) - up to 40 years; From the age of 40 - plus mammography (with an interval of six months).